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Plan and prepare. Davis, Barbara Gross. Using discussions as a primary teaching method allows you to stimulate critical thinking. Discussion Boards (forums) are Web.2 technology that enable student to interact, collaborate and exchange knowledge in different online courses. Students can submit these questions via an online discussion forum; this assignment can also serve as a way for you to ensure that they have each figured out how to log on to a discussion forum that you are using throughout the course. Steven Gilbert (1995) of the American Association for Higher Education states that one purpose of educational institutions is to make better connections among people who want to learn, people who want to teach, and the world of information and ideas. Develop clear goals and a specific plan for each session. Integrate student responses into the discussion without making the discussion merely a student-teacher interaction. And second, discussion is supposed to develop the students’ social interaction skills. April 28, 2015. They enable users of a website to interact with each other by exchanging tips and discussing topics related to a certain theme. Clare Jarmy 20th September 2013 at 1:00am. A Discussion Web helps students visualize the key elements of an issue and quickly identify opposing points of view on the matter. Consistently use their names when calling on them and when referring to comments they have made in class or in threaded email discussions. Recognize your own learning preferences and make efforts to extend your approach beyond those preferences. Then, reconvene the class as a whole to formulate together the guidelines for discussion that the class will follow the rest of the semester. For example, require each student to submit a question about the course during the first day or week. reading strategies Whether we’re teaching completely online or adding online discussion to a face-to-face class, online discussion boards are increasingly becoming a staple of college courses. Small-group discussions, writing assignments, and online discussions can be effective methods for encouraging participation by students who are uncomfortable speaking in large groups and for enabling students to learn from one another. Collect the cards and tally the responses. Each session should have a clear beginning, middle, and end. Because of mandated institutional engagement expectations, the discussion … Much of what I have to say derives from the work of those who have perfected the case method of teaching. I came to understand the discussion teaching process through using the case method in my work as a faculty member in a graduate school of business. (1991). Within discussion forums, students share thoughts and review the ideas of others modeled through collegial, dialogic exchanges. Using discussions as a primary teaching method allows you to stimulate critical thinking. Stay abreast of new scholarship on teaching and teaching with technology. You can also tap into a community of like-minded teachers who are eager to share what’s working in their … Phase II: Independent Reading: Reading with a purpose set by a thought –provoking question. Leading discussions can be a stimulating, enjoyable way to teach. Provide a structure. This organizational tool guides discussions by allowing students to identify ideas of contention, to weigh opposing viewpoints, to critically evaluate the arguments, and to draw conclusions. Students can participate in identifying the most common arguments based on their previous class discussion. Show respect for all questions and comments. For example, to discourage students from monopolizing the discussion or interrupting one another, indicate whether it will be necessary for students to raise their hands and be called on before speaking; this decision will depend on your preference and on the size of the class. Especially near the beginning of the semester, call on all students to answer questions, not just those who consistently raise their hands. 4. No matter how often you use discussions in your course, you can underscore their importance by ensuring that you discuss material that later appears on exams and by integrating students’ contributions (with attribution) into subsequent lectures, discussions, and assignments. Let students know that your role as facilitator might become less involved as the term … If 10-15 seconds pass without anyone volunteering an answer and the students are giving you puzzled looks, rephrase your question. It would be easy to hold online discussions to higher standards than discussions happening face-to-face. Management research teaches us that people change most rapidly and completely in proportion to the amount of interaction which the… Just as in a traditional classroom discussion, students need to be reminded to talk to each other directly, not through you as the instructor. On a simple "T-chart," record students' positive and negative responses. Beginning on the first day, use frequent small-group work: divide the class into groups of 2-4 students, then give each group a focused assignment, with specific objectives and roles that they should each take on in order to complete the assignment. Take that person aside and ask him or her to limit comments in class. Share the results with the class and list the most common reasons ("pro" and "con") for these decisions on a shared Discussion Web form. Get to know your students and the skills and perspectives they bring to the discussions. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 2005. Moreover, leading an effective discussion does not always come naturally to the instructor. Thus, this method is more effective. Provide the groups with the Discussion Web graphical organizer (see below). The students may not follow the rules of discussion. https://mcgraw.princeton.edu/node/1271. As a group, class fills out a shared Discussion Web, which includes the most common arguments used by students, and the most popular student conclusion. The discussion web: A graphic aid for learning across the curriculum. I’ve been teaching at the university level for more than 30 years; for half those 3 decades, I’ve been teaching, volitionally, online. Warren, Lee. 3. Participation by Everybody. The teacher may not be able to guide and provide true leadership in the discussion. Ask the class to identify the main question of the text. Do not give in to the temptation to answer your own questions, which will condition students to hesitate before answering to see if you will supply “the answer.” Patience is key; do not be afraid of silence. I often will have my students do work (answer questions, fill out a chart) before the discussion. Discussion Webs are "a special kind of graphic aid for teaching students to look at both sides of an issue before drawing a conclusion." (For more information about the learning preferences referenced here, see Professor Richard Felder’s Website.). As you establish a rapport with your students, you can demonstrate that you appreciate their contributions at the same time that you challenge them to think more deeply and to articulate their ideas more clearly. After class and before the next one, refresh your memory of names and faces by looking over the roster again. Your presence online should not dominate the discussion; rather, it should foster discussion between students. “What to Do When Class Discussion Stalls.” The McGraw Center. https://mcgraw.princeton.edu/node/656. https://mcgraw.princeton.edu/node/661. If you find the right websites, forums, and online tools, it can make your planning simpler and more enjoyable while making your lessons more engaging and relevant to today’s students. Discussion Monopolizers: If the same students answer all the time, you might say, “Let’s hear from someone else.” Then don’t call on students who have already spoken. Have students evaluate each reason ("pro" and "con") objectively and fairly. Desire2 Learn (D2L), for instance, offers instructors the option for a "single thread of conversation" that extends through the entire semester. Emphasis on Learning instead of Teaching, Discussion Method emphasises pupil-activity in the form of discussion, rather than simply telling and lecturing by the teacher. Web-based teaching starts with identifying and vetting your resources, creating a lesson plan, and developing online handouts that provide information and encourage student participation. families reading The same class management skills needed for a conventional lesson are still needed in the internet class. On-call classroom and technology assistance that ensures every student has a seat at the table. Abstract. Each time you facilitate a discussion, you learn something about how best to approach the topic. 5. Textbooks are a great source of reliable information and ready-made activities, but the content they provide can be generic and not particularly engaging for students. Clarify the rules and expectations for discussions at the outset. Your written evaluation can be designed to encourage the quiet students to talk more often and the verbose students to hold their comments to give others a chance to participate). Using the web for learning and teaching – a new understanding Digital literacy in higher education is more than learning how to Google better – it needs new thinking around online engagement Will you include in each participation grade the student’s performance on informal writing, online discussions, minor group projects, or other work? Communicate to students the importance of discussion to their success in the course as a whole. Some students may not take part while others may try to dominate. Respond to student contributions in ways that move the discussion forward and keep it focused on the topic at hand. To help the other participants quickly understand what your post is about, be sure that your title clearly indicates the content that will follow. Teaching by discussion utilizes one of the best principles of the learning process, namely, the involvement of students in active participation in the learning experience. The main objective of this research study is to investigate the impact of Discussion Boards on students’ grades and satisfaction with the learning environment. Communicate to students the importance of discussion to their success in the course as a whole. For all groups, however, having the students take a role in formulating the rules will mean that they will be more invested in following them. In spite of these limitations, Discussion Method is a very useful and effective method for the teaching of History. This strategy will also encourage the students to refer to one another by name. Lenski, Susan D., Wham, Mary Ann, & Johns, Jerry L. (1999). Have each student write his final conclusion on an index card. Use this list to promote discussion. The study compared two groups of similar students studying similar topic and compared … While you are charged with facilitating the discussion from the perspective of an expert knowledgeable in the subject, the aim of the discussion is not to bring students around to your way of thinking, but rather to create the opportunity for students to think critically—to question assumptions, to consider multiple viewpoints, and to develop knowledge of the subject. Learn your students’ names during the first week of class. If you use discussions on a regular basis, assign grades for student participation. discussion method of teaching 1. discussion akshaya r nair 2. definition discussion method of teaching is a group activity involving the teacher and the student to define the problem and seek its solution.discussion method is also described as a constructive process involving listening ,thinking ,as well as the speaking ability of the student. The longer you wait for students to respond, the more thoughtful and complex their responses are likely to be. Interestingly, the process of facilitating discussion appears to be a key role when teaching in the online space as it explicitly appears in five of the six frameworks summarized in Table 2. Use verbal and non-verbal cues to encourage participation. There are so many teachable moments. You can start learning your students’ names before the semester begins by using WebFAC to print your roster (with photos). Define what you think of as a successful discussion (for example, one that includes participation by all group members, stays on topic, and explores issues in-depth and from a variety of perspectives.) quoted Abercrombie that through discussion certain areas of one’s particular viewpoint are compared and contrasted with others. This strategy offers a clear "point-counterpoint" visual framework for analyzing texts. Online discussions can generate a number of messages, so you need to consider efficient ways to make your contributions. Monitor carefully. Yet not all students participate equally in a face-to-face seminar. Harvard University. Create a balance between controlling the group dynamic and letting group members speak. ADVERTISEMENTS: In this method, everybody participates in the discussion, and therefore thinks and expresses himself. Discussion Webs are useful tools for readers. Distribute a selected reading to the class. In the classroom, talking is rarely seen as a key skill. “Facilitating Discussions in Humanities and Social Science.” The McGraw Center. Web Discussion Forums in Teaching and Learning. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 2005. Develop helpful responses to incorrect answers or comments that are not sufficiently related to the issue currently being discussed. Understanding your students’ skills and perspectives can help you to develop specific ways of challenging each of them to think critically and express ideas clearly. Viola – every voice is heard! If you have suggestions of resources we might add to these pages, please contact us: firstname.lastname@example.org(314) 935-6810Mon - Fri, 8:30 a.m. - 5:00 p.m. © 2020 Washington University in St. Louis, http://isites.harvard.edu/fs/html/icb.topic58474/hotmoments.html, Learning Styles and Index of Learning Styles, Encouraging Interaction in Science and Engineering Classes, Facilitating Discussions in Humanities and Social Science. Accommodate different learning preferences. Web teaching units for your class or other classes: ... Small discussion groups are an expensive way to organize teaching, and as a result they are becoming less common in some of the budget-conscious schools and universities of our time. Learning through online forums is an important learning strategy for students to improve their language skills. “My ideas about today’s readings” isn’t nearly as cl… That is one of the things I love about teaching. Using their names will convince them that you see them each as individuals with something valuable to add, thus creating an environment of mutual trust and interest. This online discussion tool allows a teacher to post a topic for discussion (could be student-generated) to a discussion “grid” which is simply an online space for collaborative thought. Combine discussions with other methods. You might also consider opening the discussion on the first day of class with small-group discussions about effective discussions and how to achieve them. A Discussion Web helps students visualize the key elements of an issue and quickly identify opposing points of view on the matter. McKeachie’s Teaching Tips: Strategies, Research, and Theory for College and University Teachers. Less experienced students will require more guidance with this task. Actively seek contributions from as many students as possible in a given session; if a few students want to speak all the time, remind them that you value their contributions but would like to hear from others as well. Teachers can feel as if they spend half their time telling students to quieten down, but there are reasons why it's good to talk. During the Discussion. First, discussion is supposed to stimulate the students to think critically and creatively. Using the discussion method, a student’s concrete, personal experiences are followed by observation, reflection, and analysis of these experiences.This process leads to formulation of abstract concepts and generalizations, which, in turn, leads to hypotheses to be discussed and tested in future experiences. Point out what is valuable about your students’ arguments, whether or not you agree with them. Despite research showing the benefits of discussions for student engagement and learning, these boards are often the bane of an instructor’s online existence. If you grade class participation, give students preliminary grades and brief written evaluations as early as 3-4 weeks into the semester and at midterm so that they will know where they stand. Ask students to respond directly to one another’s ideas. And it's important to remember that whatever the resources and material being used - it is still the teacher that does the teaching, not the computer. The use of small-group discussions will allow students to become better acquainted and thus facilitate their communication with one another. Assign students brief writing assignments, such as writing a set of questions or a brief reflective piece that will serve as the basis for in-class discussions. Provide a structure. Brookfield, Stephen D. and Stephen Preskill. Rethink, retool, revise. THE EFFECTIVENESS OF DISCUSSION METHOD IN TEACHING AND LEARNING SOCIAL STUDIES IN SOME SELECTED JUNIOR SECONDARY SCHOOLS IN NIGERIA (A CASE STUDY OF GWAGWALADA AREA COUNCIL) CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY The basic objective or goal of teaching at any level of education is to bring a fundamental change on the learner (Tebabal & Kahssay, … Make eye contact and move around the room to engage the attention of all the students and to communicate that you expect each of them to participate. Tools for Teaching. Introduce yourself and explain your interests in the topic on the first day. Afterall, faculty teaching across the spectrum are not typically specialists in pedagogical theories of education; it may be the case that instructors simply don’t know how to create engagement using online discussion. Once consensus is reached, post the question for quick reference. For example, write an outline or guiding questions on the board. In other words, do not assume that you can teach something in the same way that you learned it and get the same results with all of your students. Webs (The Discussion Kind!) They help students to organize their thinking, examine (and learn tolerance for) other points of view, and draw richer understanding from the materials they read. A good discussion will help students express themselves verbally, crystalize their thinking in conjunction with the thinking of their peers, and develop a tolerance for those with whom they may disagree. For example, while some may be active learners who prefer to solve problems in order to learn concepts, others are reflective learners who prefer to master concepts through uninterrupted reflection. Write an outline or list of guiding questions on the board before you begin the discussion. (In University-managed classrooms, the standard configuration is displayed on a diagram posted near the door.). However, you would be surprised how much discussion can be accomplished even in large classes (link to lament) and sub-optimal physical settings. Use the chalkboard throughout the class to record key points, ideas, and questions. Do not allow one student to speak for an inordinate amount of class time. “Encouraging Interaction in Science and Engineering Classes.” The McGraw Center. 2. In Class and Online: Using Discussion Boards in Teaching JOHN SULER, Ph.D. ABSTRACT Discussion boards provide instructors a unique opportunity to extend their classrooms into cyberspace. Bring the printed roster to class and use it to take attendance on the first day. In my courses, I require two answers to the initial questions and two additional replies to classmates by the end of each week.Be careful what you wish for, however! Consider supplementing class discussions with threaded, online discussions that you monitor. Discussion as a Way of Teaching: Tools and Techniques for Democratic Classrooms. Plan to use brief lectures to introduce complex topics or to clarify the larger concepts that the current set of readings investigates (see Teaching with Lectures). Discussion Webs are useful tools for readers. We’re proponents of evidence-based pedagogy, striving for success in our field and academic success for the University as a whole. This organizational tool guides discussions by allowing students to identify ideas of contention, to weigh opposing viewpoints, to critically evaluate the arguments, and to draw conclusions. Take brief notes on how each discussion went and use these as the basis for reorganizing your plan for the discussion, improving your presentation skills, rethinking the material included or developing ideas for future teaching and research projects. This is a sure way of learning. Find everything you need on our new undergraduate student site. Encourage questions from the outset. in the Classroom. Listen carefully. Speak with your colleagues about their approaches and ideas. Princeton University. That way, everyone has to think about the topic and participate in some way. Alvermann, D.E. There are best practices for discussion boards, and such practices have been established for about a decade; they’re nothing new. Princeton University. In some cases, discussion boards function along the lines of social networks students are already using. Princeton University. Arrange to have one of your classes observed or videotaped so that an observer can help you evaluate what went well and what you can do to improve student learning. If you do not do this, students will have a hard time picking out the most important ideas from the discussion and understanding their significance. Ask the groups to write down at least 3 reasons for answering the question "Yes" and 3 reasons for answering the question "No.". At appropriate points in the session, summarize the major ideas and write them on the board. For example, will you evaluate the frequency and quality of their contributions, as well as how effectively they each respond to others’ comments? Online forums are also known as discussion boards or message boards. Learn about the Center for Teaching and Learning. Compose specific questions that will move the discussion forward, illuminate major points, and prompt students to offer evidence for their assertions and to consider other points of view. Distribute or post on the board a list of rules and expectations that will promote successful discussions. You can be most effective if you combine teaching methods to reach as many students as possible: for example, combine verbal and visual explanations, explain concepts using both a “big-picture” and a detail-oriented approach, and give students opportunities for active learning and reflection. Point out that understanding both sides of an argument does not preclude taking a stand. Although the web is a new resource, it makes the same demands on the teacher as more traditional teaching resources. Create a comfortable, non-threatening environment. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 1993. Make it clear that good discussions rarely happen without effort. Do not answer your own questions. If you are teaching a class of 120 in an auditorium with bolted-down seats and poor acoustics, the traditional circular discussion arrangement is untenable. The web is brimming with useful resources that can enhance an educator’s teaching experience. Classroom practice - Speak easy: learning through discussion. together. Include these notes in your file for the course so that they are readily accessible the next time you teach the course. Give students 5-10 seconds to think and formulate a response. Plan and prepare the discussion. Move the chairs back to their standard configuration after the class session has ended. 12th ed. 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